On August 13, 2019, the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals (the D.C. Circuit) issued an opinion in Children’s Hospital Association of Texas v. Azar (No. 18-5135), allowing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to include payments from third parties, including Medicare and private insurers, in calculations of Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payment caps. The D.C. Circuit had previously ruled against HHS’ implementation of its 2017 rule, which included third-party payments in the calculation of the hospital-specific caps on allowable DSH payments. …